There was isolating and identifying Vibrios bacteria that taken from fresh and frozen fish, such as Suoboor Tenualosa ilisha, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Beni Barbus sharpey and Shanak Acanthopagrus arabicus, we collected 210 fish from Basrah markets (Big market in Basrah, Al-Ashar, Al- Tanoma and Khmsameel) while we collected 150 fish from Silver carp, Beni and Shanak from Nasiriyah market (Big market and Harj market) this collecting process of samples taken a period from 2-June to 30-November2013. Fish bring to laboratory in container with crash ice and the samples taken from it and planted directly on agricultural medians (nutrient agar, blood agar, MacConkey agar and selective media (Thiosulphate Citrate Bile salt Sucrose Agar TCBS)) then the dishes were incubated aerobically at temperature 37 °C for 18 – 24 hours.
*Part of Msc. Thesis for the third researcher.
After the period of incubation, we identify 30 positive samples from Vibrios and this genus relianced to the shap of cultures and cell under microscope and by Catalase test, Oxidase test and motion test after that, identifying the types relianced to biochemical tests and using certain API20E system, that indenting two kinds from Vibrios bacteria Vibrio cholera and Vibrio fluvialis. we confirmed that fresh fish including these bacteria more than frozen fish.Vibrio cholera and Vibrio fluvialis bacteria to be distinguished by percentage of durability of acidittoy reach to 100% at pH 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0, while we observed that the percentage of durability of acidity for Vibrio cholera bacteria reach to 60% at pH 4.5, but the Vibrio fluvialis bacteria was more resistant to acidity on 20% and 50% at pH 4.0 and 4.5 respectively.
The study showed the ability of Vibrio cholera bacteria to resistant for salinity was reach to percentages 60% and 100% at concentrations 6% and 7% respectively, but it didn't grow on concentrations 8% and 9%.
For the Vibrio fluvialis bacteria was resistant salinity in all concentrations but with different percentage reach to 100% at concentrations 6%, 7% and 40% at concentration 8%, but at concentration 9% there is only one sample had resistant on 20% which it as frozn sample. All isolation from different sources could growth in 25 and 37 °C and in room temperature 15 °C through worken in this experiment, but some isolation of Vibrios bacteria could growth with little density in 5 ºC, while it couldn't growth in -20 °C.
Distributed 90 fish carp common Cyprinus carpio L. (25-40 g fish-1) randomly on nine experimental treatment of two replicates for each treatment, each replicate included 5 fishes. The experiment was carried out for 60days in 18-glass aquarium (6o cm×30cm×30cm 60 L-1). The fish were fed on nine diets that different ratios from anise, cinnamon, treatment 1 (without the addition), treatment 2 (5% anise), treatment 3 (1% cinnamon), treatment 4 (5% anise +1% cinnamon), treatment 5 (2.5 anise), treatment 6 (2.5 cinnamon), treatment7 (5% anise 2.5% cinnamon), treatment 8 (2.5% anise +1% cinnamon), treatment9 (2.5% anise 2.5%) cinnamon. The results of statistical analysis showed high significantly different (P0.01>) of T3(1% cinnamon) and T8 (2.5% anise +1% cinnamon) for WG and DWG whish were 27.685 gm fish-1 and 26.885 gm fish-1 for WG and 0.520 gm day-1 and 0.500 gm day-1 for DWG. Also The results of statistical analysis showed high significantly different (P0.01>) of T3 (1% cinnamon) and T8 (2.5% anise +1% cinnamon) for RGR% and SGR% whish were 87.085% and 85.070% for RGR% and 1.180% and 1.160 %for SGR%. The results of statistical analysis showed no significantly different between all treatments for RBC. The results of statistical analysis showed high significantly different (P0.01>) of T3, T4 and T5 for WBC whish was 36.250 and 33.750 and 36.00 Cell ml-3×103. Also. The results of statistical analysis showed high significantly different (P0.01>) of T4, T5 and T9 for PCV% whish was 35.00% and 35.500% and35.500 %. The results of statistical analysis showed high significantly different (P0.01>) of T5 for Hb whish was 11.800 gm 100ml-1. The results suggest that the levels of anise and cinnamon of T3 and T8 gave best results for WG, DWG, RGR and SGR, therefore we advise to use the parentage above in diets of common carp.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of she-camel's milk on the activity of liver enzymes, Aspartate amino transaminase (AST), Alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a model for this study. Rats were divided into seven groups (six rats each). They were, healthy control group, diabetic control group and five diabetic groups fed on raw, refrigerated, frozen, pasteurized and sterilized milk, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 28 days, and at the end results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT and ALP) for diabetic rats fed on raw, refrigerated, frozen and pasteurized milk compared with control diabetic group, but therapeutic effect of milk was lost after sterilization. It was concluded that camel's milk played a positive role in improving the activity of liver enzymes in diabetic rats.
This study was conducted in Baqubah city, at the period from November to April (2014-2015) in order to find out the inhibitory effect of extracts of Propolis on bacterial growth for three of the bacterial isolates included Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, The study included preparing three types of extracts, alcoholic extract, hot aqueous and cold extract, with concentrations 10, 20, 50, 100 mg ml-1, by using drilling method balakar were compared to results of inhibition with extracts by inhibition activation for seven antibiotics (Nalidixic acid, Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Amikacin, Trimethoprim, Ampicillin) by using sensitive test for antibiotics. The study results showed that propolis inhibition of Staph. aureus bacteria at the rate of 17.19 mm then E-coli bacteria at the rate of 15.02 mm then Ps. aeruginosi at the rate of 14.61 mm.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the aqueous and crude alcohol extracted from the leaves of Isatis tinctoria on two malignant cell lines Hela and RD. Also this study included evaluation of the effect of these extracts on several cytogenetic parameters. The cytotoxicity of the aqueous extract and crude alcohol extract was investigated on the cancer cells line, Hella and RD. Toxic effect for both extracts was indicated by rate of proliferation inhibition. The alcohol extract showed the inhibition of Hela cell line at percentage (19.17% - 93.03%) more than the aqueous extract (8.95% - 75.69%) at concentrations: 62.5-8000 μg ml-1. The rate inhibition of alcohol extract for RD cell line (11.48% - 77.87%) was higher than that of the aqueous extract (9.60%-71.14%) at the concentrations 62.5 and 8000 μg ml-1. Both extracts (alcohol extract and aqueous extract) showed almost the same effect at the concentration 8000 μg ml-1.
This study aimed to evaluate the use of supplementation synbiotic with different levels of sumac powder as promoter for the production of Lohmman Brown layers. For five months field experiment used 216 laying hens at 46 weeks age, distributed in 18 ground pens (1.15 × 2 m pen-1), 12 hens pen-1, and randomly divided in to six treatments (3 Rep. / treat.). The first treatment (T1) were fed a standard diet (control), T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 were fed a standard diet was supplemented with 0.3% synbiotic, 0.5% sumac, 1% sumac, 0.3% synbiotic + 0.5% sumac powder, and 0.3% synbiotic +1% sumac respectively.
The results showed an improvement in the productive performance of birds fed control diet with synbiotic and sumac powder, since significantly increase (P≤0.05) achieved in each of egg production ratio (H.D.%), eggs mass, and feed conversion ratio compared with the control treatment. The effect of supplementation treatments had been enhanced productive performance in birds fed a combination supplementation of synbiotic and sumac compared with birds fed supplementation of synbiotic or sumac alone, means that got a synergistic effect between the synbiotic and sumac.
The improvement in the productive performance and quality of eggs produced that reflection of the improvement in each the microbial balance of the intestines, histological characteristics of the intestines and immune response, were significantly decreased both of the numbers of total bacteria, and Coliform, and increased significantly the number of the lactic acid bacteria, also significantly increased the length of villi, depth of the crypts, and titer of antibodies against Newcastle disease in birds fed synbiotic and sumac, compared with the birds of the control treatment.
This study was conducted in poultry farm/Department of Animal production/ College of Agriculture/University of Diyala, for the period from 3/7 to 30/10/2015. The aim was to determine the effect of diallel cross (3×3) between there varieties of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica),White (W), Black (B) and Brown (N) plumage color on blood traits in males and females to estimate the main effects of sire and dam, effect of interaction between sire and dam, general combining ability, specific combining ability reciprocal effect, heterosis and maternal effects. The results showed asignificant difference between sire effect of male on number of WBC to varietie Black on White and high significant effect between Black and Brown Varieties in concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol.The main effect dam show superiority of Black Variety on White Variety on concentration of cholesterol. The effect of interaction between sire and dam in blood traits in male progeny showed significant in: number of WBC, Hemoglobin concentration and concentration of cholesterol. The general combining ability for blood traits of pure Variety in male progeny significant values in concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. Specific combining ability showed No significant values for all traits of blood.The reciprocal effect showed significant values for WBC and concentration of hemoglobin. The results of interaction between sire and dam in blood traits of female progeny showed significant values in number of WBC, concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. The general combining ability values showed no significant differences in concentration of hemoglobin, concentration of cholesterol and Packed Cell Volume. Specific combining ability showed significant values in concentration of hemoglobin. The reciprocal effect showed significant values for concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. The results of heterosis value of blood traits in male progeny,
showed significant differences in concentration of hemoglobin. The maternal effect values showed significant differences in concentration of hemoglobin, and the result of heterosis values of blood traits in female progeny, significant differences in hemoglobin and cholesterol concentration and No significant showed differences between maternal effect of all traits in blood of female progeny.
The study was carried out in postharvest physiology lab, Horticulture and landscape Dept., College of Agriculture/ University of Diyala on 27/5/2014 to 2/6/2015 to study the effect of three combinations of some treatment and methods of drying in two types of storage in qualitative characteristics of apricots. It was chosen as the best three combinations included: SO2 with the microwave drying method (T1), NaOH with heating cabinet method (T2) and vitamin C with heating room (T3) and two types of storage (normal and radiator) and 12 month of storage. The complete randomized design C.R.D. was used in three replicated weighted 750 – 800 g of dried fruit for each replication. The results were analyzed by using the statistical system SAS at the probability level 0.05. The fruits packaged in plastic bags were divided in two groups: the first stored in the laboratory at 25ᵒ. Other, stored in chilled storage at 4±1 oC. Readings were taken on 8/6/2014 then after six months until the end of storage on 2/6/2015, then result showed that T2 had a significant increase in the total sugars, TSS and rate of losing weight. Whereas T3 led to decrease the percentage rate of acidity, moisture and losing weight. Chilled storage caused significantly increase the percentage of acidity, total sugars, carotene and less weight loss. While storage caused a decrease in the total sugars, TSS, carotene and less humidity loss. The study was carried out in postharvest physiology lab, Horticulture and landscape Dept., College of Agriculture/ University of Diyala on 27/5/2014 to 2/6/2015 to study the effect of three combinations of some treatment and methods of drying in two types of storage in qualitative characteristics of apricots. It was chosen as the best three combinations included: SO2 with the microwave drying method (T1), NaOH with heating cabinet method (T2) and vitamin C with heating room (T3) and two types of storage (normal and radiator) and 12 month of storage. The complete randomized design C.R.D. was used in three replicated weighted 750 – 800 g of dried fruit for each replication. The results were analyzed by using the statistical system SAS at the probability level 0.05. The fruits packaged in plastic bags were divided in two groups: the first stored in the laboratory at 25ᵒ. Other, stored in chilled storage at 4±1 oC. Readings were taken on 8/6/2014 then after six months until the end of storage on 2/6/2015, then result showed that T2 had a significant increase in the total sugars, TSS and rate of losing weight. Whereas T3 led to decrease the percentage rate of acidity, moisture and losing weight. Chilled storage caused significantly increase the percentage of acidity, total sugars, carotene and less weight loss. While storage caused a decrease in the total sugars, TSS, carotene and less humidity loss.
The Experiment was carried out at field of College of Agriculture, University of Diyala during 2014 to study effects of two factors, fertilization and plant densities on growth and yield of cauliflower. The Experiment included 12 treatment represent two plants densities, the first represented planting cauliflower seedlings on one side of drip tubes, while the second was planting seedling on both sides of the drip irrigation tubes, and six fertilization treatments were applied included: control (without fertilizer), sheep manure at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of soil volume (soil volume was calculated on the base of experimental unit area at 0.3 m depth) and the treatment of chemical fertilizer NPK 20:20:20 at 300 kg ha-1 which was added at two times: first one added after one week after planting and second was added at curds appearance. This Experiment was designed in Factorial Experiment according to randomized complete block design. Means were compared according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at the probability level 0.05. Result could be summarized as follows: the first density planting caused significantly increased in the curd diameters and curd weights with leaves to 20.10 cm, 1.85 Kg plant-1 respectively as compared with the second density which reduced to 0.51kg 15.34 cm and 1.03 kg plant-1 respectively. Otherwise second density has a significant effect on total yield (curds with leaves) which was 57.41 ton ha-1 as compared with first density 51.44 ton ha-1.
The addition of sheep manures level of 10% caused increasing in the curd diameters, curd weights with leaves and total yield (curds with leaves) after to 48.60 cm, 0.86 kg plant-1, 21.25cm, 2.14 kg plant-1, 80.42 ton ha-1, 2.67% and 2.21% respectively, as compared with control which reduced the number of it to 15.18cm, 0.83 kg plant1-, 30.14 ton ha-1 respectively. Interaction between the first density and sheep manures 10% gave a significant increase in the last characteristic, as compared with treatment of interaction between the second density and no fertilizer.
The study was conducted in the lethal house of horticultural station unit, Horticulture and landscape Department/Faculty of Agriculture/University of Tikrit to study the effect of the photoperiod (shortening daylight to 9 hours and without shortening daylight), iron foliar every 15 and 30 days in addition to the treatment of non-spray on grafted or non-grafted. The results showed that the treatment of shortening the day caused the earliest in bud burst took place in fall season as recorded 32.96 day, while non-shorting day gave 43.46 day for grafted gardenia. The grafted gardenia response to spray iron and spraying every 30 days gave the highest rate of increasing the plants height to 68.04 cm and the highest rate the flowers number per plant reached 7.30 flowers and fewer buds falling reached 2.13 flower bud. Non-grafted gardenia similar trend response to iron foliar, iron foliar every 30 day treatment gave the highest height of plant 50.50 cm and the highest weight ,diameter and flower age was 3.21g , 3.20 cm and 4.11 day respectively .
Pot experiment was carried out during autumn season in 2014. A Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) was used in three replications to investigate the effect of seed soaking in distilled water, gibberellic acid concentration of 500,750 and 1000 mg liter-1, potassium chloride concentration of 10, 20 and 30 g liter-1 and Ascorbic acid concentration of 5,10, 20 and 40 mg liter-1 as well as the comparison treatment (without soak), in growth characters and hydrocyanic acid content of sorghum a variety of HAYMAX Spanish in the following characteristics leaf area, plant height, Number of leaves, Stem diameter and content of leaf from hydrocyanic acid. The study showed the following results; Most studied characters showed significant difference with seed soaking results in most studied characters except Stem diameter, Number of leaves and Hydrocyanic acid in leaf which was not significant .Soaking treatment significant with gibberellic acid concentration of 500 mg liter-1 plant height 157cm concentration of 1000 mg liter-1 in leaf area 207.57 cm2 and significant Soaking treatment in gibberellic acid concentration 500 mg liter-1 and treatment ascorbic acid concentration 20 g liter-1 were superior in branches number about 3.33branch.
Keywords: sorghum, gibberellic acid, potassium ch
The experiment was carried out at field crops Research Station in Diyala Directorate of Agriculture during the winter season of 2013 and 2014. The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of potassium foliar on wheat crop tolerance to levels of water salinity in different stages of growth, according to the scale of Zadoks for small grains and this impact on some traits yield and yield components of wheat (IPA 99 var.). Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications by Split-plot arrangement was used for the experiment. The main plots included four levels of water salinity treatments (water concentrations of salt 7, 14, 21 dS m-1, river water). While Sub-plots included potassium foliar treatments according to the stages of crop growth. The results of the experiment showed negatively effect of water salinity S3 level (21 dS m-1) on the mean of grain yield, which was significantly lower rate (55.90 and 55.85 %) for two seasons respectively. The treatment (K6) potassium foliar in two stages booting and flowering Excelled in grain yield. As treatment (K7) potassium spray in elongation stage, booting and flowering excelled, in 1000-grain weight in two seasons. The combination S0K6 gave the highest average for spike number 304.4-
.97.5 spike m-2 respectively in two seasons, and it excelled in number of grain in spike in season one, while S0K5 treatment were recorded the significantly highest rate in grain yield in two seasons and number of grain in spike in second season. The combination S3K0 recorded the significantly lowest average of number of spikes, weight of thousand grain and grain yield in two seasons.
The experiment was carried out at Diyala Directorate of Agriculture Research Station field crops during the winter season 2013-2014. The aim was to study the effect of gibberellic acid foliar on wheat crop tolerance to levels of water salinity at different stages of growth, according to the scale of Zadoks for small grains and its impact on some characteristics; yield and yield components of wheat (IPA 99 var.). Randomized Complete Block design with three replicates using split-plot arrangement was used. The main plots included four levels of water salinity (7, 14, 21 dS m-1 and river water) in both seasons, while sub-plots included gibberellic acid in different concentrations which sprayed according to the stages of crop growth (150, 300 and 450 mg l-1). The results showed negatively effect of water salinity S3 level (21 dS m-1) on the mean of all characteristics, including the grain yield, which gave lower rate 79.00 and 79.60% for two seasons respectively. Gibberellic acid at 450 mg l-1 caused increase flag leaf area, number of spikes, number of grains in spike and yield grain in the two seasons respectively. The interaction between river water and gibberellic acid foliar at 450 mg l-1 (S0G3 ) also recorded the highest average area of flag leaf, number of grains per-spike, 1000-grain weight and yield grain in the two seasons. The combination S1G3 (salinity level 7 dS m-1 and gibberellic acid foliar at 450 mg l-1) excelled number of spikes in the first season. Combination S3G0 (salinity level 21 dS m-1 without gibberellic acid) recorded the lowest average area of flag leaf, number of spikes, number of grains per-spike and grain yield for two seasons.
Field experiment was conducted in Hibhib in Diyala province during the growing season in 2015 to study the six treatments of foliar arginine acid and yeast. Treatments were arginine acid concentration at 200 mg l-1, arginine 300 mg l-1, yeast 5 g l-1, a mixture of 200 mg l-1 arginine, yeast solution 5 g l-1 (1:1 ratio), a mixture of arginine 300 mg l- 1 + 5 g l-1 yeast solution by 1:1 ratio and control on three genotypes of potatoes which were Emma, Rivira and Loane. The experiment was carried out using split plot in RCBD, where genotypes treatments in the secondary plot with three replicates, differences between the averages was tested according to Duncan at 0.05 probability. the Study proved superiority of installation plants Loena sprayed with a mixture of yeast and arginine acid concentration of 300 mg ltr-1 which gave best plant height 66.66 cm, while installation plants recorded Emma sprayed with yeast highest number of stolen 6.00 stem plant2, as well as excelled installation plants Emma sprayed with a mixture of yeast arginine acid 300 mg ltr-1 highest number of leaves 112.00, while genotype Rivira plants sprayed arginine concentration of 200 mg l-1 recorded highest leaf area 1920.3 ds2 . Loena sprayed with a mixture of yeast histidine and arginine 300 mg l-1 gave highest content of chlorophyll in leaf which was 51.70 Spade.
The experiment was conducted in the field of Scholastic in the province of Diyala-Mandali hand in the fall season 2014, which planted the potato Solanum tuberosum L. Cv. Riviera class Elite. The aim of this experiment to know the effect of the salinity levels of irrigation water, amino acids , the method of addition and interaction in recipes vegetative growth and winning the potato. Experiment included three levels of irrigation water salinity (2, 3.6 and 5.1) ds m-1 and in drip irrigation in method, and added Amino acid Proline and Arginine with two levels 0 and 200 ppm which sprayed in two ways foliar application and with water irrigation. The experiment carried out according to Split Plot design. Water salinity levels represented main plots and amino acids represented sub plots with three replicates, the results were tested under LSD at the 5% level of probability. The results can be summarized as follows:-
1- Increased salinity of irrigation water from 2 to 5.1 ds m-1 reduced plant height, total chlorophyll, total yield and the marketable yield.
2- Treatment OF Proline at 200 ppm and interfere with irrigation water salinity 2 ds m-1 increased the plant's height, total chlorophyll in leaves and total yield and a marketable yield compared to other treatments.
The study was conducted in a private field, Bani Saad district/ Diyala governorate, during 2013 growing season to study the effect of irrigation intervals and plant density on some quantitative traits of three cowpea cultivars yield. The experiment included three factors; three cowpea cultivars (Black Eye, Ramshorn and Ramshorn H5) three irrigation intervals (every two, four and six days) and two planting densities (one and two plants per hole). The experiment was carried out in accordance to strip split-split plots using RCBD. Results can be summarized as follows:
No significant differences were showed in studied characters of all cultivars, were as irrigation intervals differs from each other significantly, irrigation every two days treatment gave the best pod length, diameter and total yield. Planting densities didn't revealed a significant differences.
Interaction of cultivars and irrigation intervals showed that plants of Ramshorn and Black Eye cultivars irrigated every two days gave the highest yield per plants (8.130 and 8.182 ton h-1 respectively), on the other hand Ramshorn H5 plants irrigated at two days interval had the superiority in pod length 15.45 cm. Plants belonged to cultivars irrigated every 4-days gave the best number of seeds per pod 7.718 seeds. Interaction of cultivar with plants density showed that Black Eye cultivar plants planted with two plant per hole gave the pest total yield 10.02 ton h-1.
Overlap between plants densities and periods of irrigation was significance as it gave the plants on the intensity of two plants density and irrigation intervals significantly affected many characters, where two plants per hole interaction irrigated every two days the pest yield 10.732 ton h-1, furthermore one plant per hole density irrigated every two or four days intervals gave the highest pod length 15.72 and 15.14 cm, respectively, while plant density of one plant per hole irrigated every four or two days gave the best number of seeds per pods (7.633 and 7.348 seeds pod-1 respectively). The triple overlap revealed that Black Eye plants irrigated every two and four days and planted at two plants per hole gave the best yield 11.116 and 10.698 ton h-1 respectively.
Field experiment was conducted during the winter season 2013 – 2014 in silty loam texture soil in order to study the effect of three levels of Atonik foliar growth regulators 0, 1 and 2 ml l-l distilled water on components yield, yield of seeds, Trigonelline percents and its yield in two cultivars of Fenuqreek (Indian, Iraqi. Split plot arrangement according to randomized complete block design (RBCD) was used to conduct the experiment. The cultivars were placed in main plot while the concentration of Atonik employed as sub plot. The result revealed that the third level of spray (2 m Atonik l-1 water) gave a significant increase in numbers of pods in the plant, seeds number per pod, 100 seeds weight (g), seeds yield kg ha-1, Trigonelline percentage and yield g ha-1. The Indian cultivars was significantly superior in pods number per plant, seeds yield kg ha-1, while Iraqi Fenuqreek cultivar gave significant increase of 100 seeds weight (g), Trigonelline percentage and yield (g ha-1). The interaction between two factors significantly influence in all the studied characteristics.
The experiment was carried out in one of the plastic houses of the research station belong to the Department of Horticulture and Landscaping/ College of Agriculture/ University of Diyala during the 2014-2015 season to study the effect of adding some of plant preparations containing free amino acids, Humic compounds and micronutrients on growth and yield traits of eggplant var. Sevilla F1" under protected cultivation conditions.
The experiment included 7 treatments in addition to the control. A randomized complete block design was used with three replicates, the number of pilot unit were 24 and each one included 10 plants.The results showed that the treatment of adding amino acids + humic compounds + micronutrients was superior in most of vegetative growth such as plant height, leaf area, dry weight of shoot and the relative amount of chlorophyll present in plant leaves (57.52cm, 333cm2 plant-1,108.70 g and 57.33 SPAD unit) respectively, and also superior significantly in giving a highest percentage of N, P, K, Fe and Mn in leaves as reached (3.37%, 0.42%, 3.49%, 223.36 mg kg-1 and 107.52 kg-1) respectively. It was also affected significantly on fruit weight, yield per plant and total yield of plastic house, TSS percentage and content of fruit peel of anthocyanins pigment as recorded (198.60 g, 6.68 kg plant-1, 6.44 t house-1, 6.35% and 784.00 mg 100 g-1) respectively.
Two experiments were carried out in Biology department/College of Education for pure Science–University of Diyala, during agricultural season 2014–2015 to study the effect of allelopathy of some summer plants on growth and yield of wheat. The first experiment was conducted in the laboratory using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with three replications to investigate the effects of roots extracts of summer plants (maize, sorghum, sunflower and cotton) in percentage of germination and some characteristic of seedling growth.
The second experiment was in pots to study the effects of roots residues of maize, sorghum, sunflower and cotton on growth, germination and yield of wheat which was planted after them, according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with four replicates.
The results showed a significant decrease in seed germination of wheat reached to (33.333, 86.667, 73.333 and 26.667%) respectively, as compared with control treatment 93.33% as well as length of leave and roots of the plant and weight of dry matter at transaction with warm water solutions to roots of the summer plants above mentioned with concentration 100%. The results of pots experiment also showed a significant decrease in seed germination of wheat. While, there was significant increase in the percent of fertile branches and plant height which was planted after sorghum, weight of 100 grain and yield of grains plant in wheat which was planted after sunflower.
The experiment agent was done by Nested Combined Design using RCBD in the field of Horticulture and Landscaping Dept., Faculty of Agric., University of Diyala at spring season 2015 to study the impact of global shading and spraying Salicylic acid in some tomato harvest quotient. It included three levels of shading (without shading 0% and 35% and 65%) have a code symbols (L0 and L1 and L2) using over foods to cover and four of Salicylic acid concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225 mg l-1 symbolized as S0, S1, S2 and S3 respectively). Salicylic acid was sprayed on two batches, the first after a month and the second after two months after of seedlings transplanting. The differences between the averages was tested by polynomial Duncan test at the 0.05 level of significance.
The result of this study showed the using of shading level 35% gave superior increasing in plants yield and total yield which was 1.342 kg plant -1 and 52.614 kg respectively, while 65% shading level was significantly increase fruit size, which did not differs from the 35 % shading level (103.00 and 100.25). Control treatment was significantly increase fruit's number. Spraying of salicylic acid achieved significant increasing in all traits as compared with control treatment, the highest results with 75 mg l-1. Interaction between shading and salicylic acid gave significant effect of all traits especially of plant yield and total yield. Shading of 35% and salicylic acid at 75 mg l-1 gave best results.
A field experiment was conducted in a gypsiferous soil with a sandy loam texture to study effect of phosphate fertilizer type and its levels on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replications. Two types of phosphate fertilizers (TSP-Triple Super Phosphate and DAP- Di Ammonium Phosphate) were applied in six levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 & 100) kg P ha-1 each symbolized P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and P6. The total plots were 36 experimental units. Nitrogen fertilizer was added to all treatments at a rate of 200 kg N ha-1 in Urea form (46% N) at sowing time and at 45 days after emergence. Potassium fertilizer was added at rate of 165 kg K ha-1 in the form of potassium sulfate (43% K). As fertilizer level increasing, the results showed significant increases in plant height, spike number, and spike weight, as well as straw and grains yield for both fertilizer types. However, increases referring to TSP fertilizer were more important than those related to DAP fertilizer in the growth criteria's and yield components.
A pot experiment was conducted at the lath–house of the Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the fall season of 2013. Sandy loam texture soil was used to study the effect of mycorrhiza and potassium addition on the growth of corn plant under water stress. Three potassium levels were used control (K0), 100 (K1) and 200 (K2) Kg h-1. Mycorrhiza inoculation was used with three treatments of inoculation (without inoculation (M0), with mycorrhiza, Gloums spp. (M1) and inoculation with roots infected by mycorrhiza (M2). Three irrigation treatments were used, i. e. irrigation when 40% (W1), 60% (W2) and 80% (W3) of available water was depleted. Using a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates per treatments, the experiment includes 81 experimental units. Compared with M0 and M2 treatments results showed that inoculation with mycorrhiza (M1) significantly increase the shoot and root dry weight which were 31.39 g pot-1 and 10.02 g pot-1 respectively, as well as leaf and root area which were 90.59 cm2 and 127.36 cm2 respectively. The addition of potassium with mycorrhiza inoculation led to mitigate the high water stress on plant growth of through their combined action. Best result was achieved due to the triple interaction among water stress, mycorrhiza and potassium, where W1M1K2 treatment showed significant increment in the dry weight of shoot system and surface leaves area reached 15.8 and 8.4% respectively, compared to W3M0K0 treatment.
An experiment was carried out at the field of College of Agriculture, University of Diyala during the autumn season 2015 - 2016 to study the effect of speed and depth of plowing on performance of rotary plow by using the machine unit consists of orchard tractor type B 2530 and mini rotary plow type 1200 in clay loam soil. The experiment was done by using random complete block design (RCBD) as a full factorial experiment with two factors. The first factor represents the plowing depths with two levels 2-4 cm and 8-10 cm, while the second factor represents the forward speed of the tractor with three levels 1.66, 3.05 and 4.35 km h-1 with three replicates.
The results showed that the depth 2-4 cm shows a higher significant effect than depth 8-10 cm of all study parameters except the volume of soil affected with less slippage percentage. The results also showed that the speed 4.35 km h-1 has a high effect comparing with speeds 3.05 and 1.66 km h-1 in all study parameters with less slippage percentage too. Meanwhile the interaction between the first speed 1.66 km h-1 with the first depth 2-4 cm showed a higher significant effect than other interactions for speed coefficient and actual field capacity with less slippage percentage. The highest productivity was on third speed 4.35 km h-1 with 2-4 cm depth 0.401 hectare h-1 and the third speed with depth 8-10 cm showed the largest volume of the soil distribution under 0.05 probability level.
From the result, we concluded that increasing the speed of the tractor has led to increase the field productivity, the volume of soil distribution, field efficiency and the coefficient of speed exploit at the lowest slippage percentage. While increase in the depth of tillage led to increase of the slippage percentage and the volume of soil distribution with decreasing in coefficient of speed exploit, field efficiency and effective field productivity. Thus the recommendation of plowing process by using the rotary plow should be at the shallow depths with high speeds to obtain the highest values of the characteristics studied.
This paper examines the short term and long term effects of changes of Iraqi dinar exchange rate versus American dollar on bilateral trade flows of some agricultural products for Iraq with its major trading partners (Syria, Jordan and United Arab Emirates) in sector of agricultural and food products trade. Accordance to the J-curve theory Johansen cointegration test was employed to analyze the long term relationship and an error correction model was employed to explore the short term effects of Iraqi dinar exchange rate level. The data set used in this study covered the period from 1995 to 2014. Agricultural and food commodity groups in this study are divided according to the SITC classification. The results showed that if the Iraq foreign trade in agricultural sector is disaggregated into specialized commodity group, there can be found only some sectors significantly connected with rate movements in the long term. The effects of exchange rate movements are less than ambiguous and cannot be generalized across the commodity groups. Theoretical short term and long term assumptions cannot confirmed in trade of most of agricultural trade of Iraq with its most important partners.
The production increase is not achieved if the economic resources used in the production function have a cross effect on the function in the long-run, when all Variables and not able to manage efficiently, hence the importance of using a cost- function in the analysis after include the prices of the resources with over the impact of economic factors, so the research aimed to conduct an econometrics analysis of Production Cost Functions for Peanut and use them to find efficiency of productive, cost and profit by using the questionnaire from 54 producers in Diyala province, in 2013, the results showed that the formula Cubic is most suitable for the analysis of the relationship between the cost and production Peanut. The optimal size of production reached 42.08 tons and the production efficiency reached 0.30, it is a low value because the farmers use classical pattern, the cost elasticity show that the production increase by 10% Requires increase in costs by 3.7%, the efficiency of the profit amounted to 1.5, 4.2 and 2.2 at actual, optimization and profit maximization for the production, while net income was 8452.8, 32721.7, 40243.5 thousand dinars respectively. results also showed that the supply elasticity amounted to 0.03 which is incompatible with the nature of the supply of agricultural goods and not to respond to price changes, the area achieved of economic efficiency reached 44.8 donom, by knowing producers response to market conditions and to clarify the possibility of bridging the national needs of the crop at the different strategies show that the alternative vertical expansion is more realistic.